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Region Europe
Population 1340602
GDP (millions USD) 21,278
National Policies
Eggs for assisted reproduction commercial prohibited
Eggs for research commercial prohibited
Inheritable genetic modification PROHIBITED
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis social uses prohibited
Reproductive cloning PROHIBITED
Research cloning PROHIBITED
Sex selection ?
Surrogacy no policy
International Agreements
1997 COE Biomedicine Convention RATIFIED
1998 COE Cloning Convention RATIFIED
2005 UN Cloning Vote no
2005 UNESCO Sports Doping Convention RATIFIED
2007 Treaty of Lisbon signed


Key laws and policies

Prohibited practices

The Penal Code prohibits cloning, surrogacy, and hybrids and chimeras.

The Patents Act prohibits the patenting of cloning procedures, techniques for inheritable genetic modification, and "descriptions of the formation or development of the human body or sequence or partial sequence of human gene."

In addition, Estonia's ratification of the Council of Europe's Convention on Biomedicine and the Additional Protocol Regarding Human Cloning commits it to prohibitions on:

  • PGD for social uses
  • Research cloning
  • Somatic genetic enhancement
  • Inheritable genetic modification

Permitted and regulated practices

  • The “Artificial Insemination and Embryo Protection Act” (1997) regulates reproductive technologies and prohibits commercial intermediaries from soliciting or supplying gametes. Donor eggs, sperm, and embryos are allowed.
  • In vitro fertilization is allowed only with the intention of implanting the ovum into a woman.

External links

See “Artificial Insemination and Embryo Protection Act,” 1997,

[edit] References