Key laws and policies
- On transplantation of human organs (tissues)* (22.12.1992 № 4179-1,)
- Family Code (1995)
- On temporary prohibition of human cloning (№ 54 FZ, 2002)
Permitted and regulated practices
Surrogacy, including payments, is explicitly permitted by the 1995 Family Code.
Payments for gametes is allowed by the Law On transplantation of human organs.
PGDs and sex selection are allowed only when there is a risk of giving birth to children with hereditary pathologies.
A five-year moratorium on human reproductive cloning expired in 2007 and was not renewed until 2010.
The 2008 Patent Act for the first time explicitly prohibits patents involving human cloning, modifications of human cell lines and the use of embryos.
- "Russia extends human cloning ban," RiaNovosti (October 2, 2009)
- Human Fertility and Embryology Authority (UK), "Hybrids and Chimeras: Findings of the Consultation, Annex C – International Perspective," September 5, 2007
- Konstantin Svitnev, "Russian Legislation", European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology (accessed on June 1, 2008)
- Petja Papula, "Russian IP Reform Brings Changes in Patenting," IPRInfo (January, 2008), accessed on July 8, 2008.