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Japan flag.JPG
Region Asia
Population 127,433,494
GDP (millions USD) 4,383,762
National Policies
Eggs for assisted reproduction PROHIBITED
Eggs for research commercial prohibited
Inheritable genetic modification PROHIBITED
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis no policy
Reproductive cloning PROHIBITED
Research cloning regulated
Sex selection no policy
Surrogacy unrecognized
International Agreements
2005 UN Cloning Vote no
2005 UNESCO Sports Doping Convention RATIFIED


Key laws and policies

Foundational values

The preamble to the 2001 cloning law speaks about "preservation of human dignity, safety for human life and body, and maintenance of social order."

Prohibited practices

The 2001 cloning law prohibits

  • Human reproductive cloning
  • Inheritable genetic modification
  • The transfer of "a human-animal amphimictic embryo, a human-animal hybrid embryo or a human-animal chimeric embryo into a uterus of a human or an animal"

Permitted and regulated practices

Although the Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology has long prohibited surrogacy in its guidelines, there appears to be no law directly addressing the practice. Recent media coverage of surrogacy has prompted a public discussion.[1] The Supreme Court ruled that the birth mother or birth parents are the legal parents of a child.[2]

The prohibition on providing eggs for reproductive purposes may be under guidelines rather than a law.[3]

PGD is covered by guidelines, not legislation.[4]


  1. Chisa Fujioka, "Japan's surrogate mothers emerge from shadows," Reuters (March 13, 2008)
  2. Shigeo Miyagawa, "Report from Japan: Surrogacy Contracts in the Supreme Court of Japan," The Court (May 11, 2007)
  3. American Society for Reproductive Medicine, "IFFS Surveillance 07," Fertility and Sterility (Vol. 87. No. 4, Suppl. 1, April 2007)
  4. Genetics and Public Policy Center, "Reproductive Genetic Testing, Guidelines for Genetic Testing (Japan)"