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Region Europe
Population 5308208
GDP (millions USD) 245,013
National Policies
Eggs for assisted reproduction commercial prohibited
Eggs for research commercial prohibited
Inheritable genetic modification PROHIBITED
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis social uses prohibited
Reproductive cloning PROHIBITED
Research cloning regulated
Sex selection ?
Surrogacy permitted
International Agreements
1997 COE Biomedicine Convention signed
1998 COE Cloning Convention signed
2005 UN Cloning Vote no
2005 UNESCO Sports Doping Convention RATIFIED
2007 Treaty of Lisbon signed


Key laws and policies

Prohibited practices

Section 13 of the Medical Research Act bans the creation of embryos exclusively for the purpose of research."

Section 26, Imposes penalties on anyone who "conducts research with the aim of:

  1. cloning human beings;
  2. creating a human being by combining embryos;
  3. creating a human being by combining human gametes and genes from animals."

However, "the act defines embryo as a fusion of gametes, so therapeutic cloning is permitted, but reproductive cloning is prohibited."[1]

The prohibition on inheritable genetic modification is implicit.

Surrogacy is generally prohibited under the 2006 Act on Assisted Fertility Treatments.[2][3]

Permitted and regulated practices

The Medical Research Act bans research "for the purpose of developing procedures for modifying hereditary properties ..., unless the research is for the purpose of curing or preventing a serious hereditary disease."


  1. Kirstin Matthews, "World Cloning Policies," accessed on July 2, 2008
  2. Merja Tuomi-Nikula, "Clinical concerns with the new Finnish fertility law," BioNews (March 6, 2006)
  3. Ministry of Justice, "Act on fertility treatment in force" (September 11, 2007)