Key laws and policies
- Embryo Protection and Artificial Fertilisation Act, 1997, amended 2003
- Penal Code, 1994, amended 2007
- Patents Act, 1994, amended 2004
The Penal Code prohibits cloning, surrogacy, and hybrids and chimeras.
The Patents Act prohibits the patenting of cloning procedures, techniques for inheritable genetic modification, and "descriptions of the formation or development of the human body or sequence or partial sequence of human gene."
In addition, Estonia's ratification of the Council of Europe's Convention on Biomedicine and the Additional Protocol Regarding Human Cloning commits it to prohibitions on:
- PGD for social uses
- Research cloning
- Somatic genetic enhancement
- Inheritable genetic modification
Permitted and regulated practices
- The “Artificial Insemination and Embryo Protection Act” (1997) regulates reproductive technologies and prohibits commercial intermediaries from soliciting or supplying gametes. Donor eggs, sperm, and embryos are allowed.
- In vitro fertilization is allowed only with the intention of implanting the ovum into a woman.
See “Artificial Insemination and Embryo Protection Act,” 1997, https://www.riigiteataja.ee/en/eli/530102013057/consolide.